The thyroid gland is an important hormonal gland located at the front of the neck, below Adam's apple (larynx). It is important for growth, metabolism and regulating many bodily functions by releasing a steady amount of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) into the bloodstream.

Classification of Thyroidism





Primary hypothyroidism

Thyroid Gland

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (an autoimmune disease ) gland fails to produce T3 and T4

Secondary Hypothyroidism


Pituitary gland

Enough TSH hormone is not created to induce the thyroid gland to produce enough thyroxine and triiodothyronine.



Hypothalamus fails to produce sufficient thyrotropin releasing hormone(TRH). TRH promotes the Pituitary gland to produce TSH.


Thyroid Gland

Autoimmune condition-Grave’s Disease

Thyroid nodule produces too much T4

Basic Difference between the two types



Characterised by under secretion  of thyroid hormones

Characterised by over secretion of thyroid hormones

Symptoms -

Slow metabolism


Weight gain

Hair loss

Symptoms -

Increased Metabolism

Weight loss


Crucial Dietary Nutrients for Normal Functioning of thyroid


Required to produce thyroid hormones in the body.  Use of iodised salt is the easiest option to maintain the level of iodine. Other iodine-rich foods like seaweed, fish, eggs are good sources of iodine


It is an essential mineral and can protect the thyroid gland from damage of free radicals. Foods like Brazil nuts, tuna, sardines eggs and legumes are rich in selenium.


It may help regulate TSH, the principle hormone which communicates the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones. Eg: oysters, shellfish, etc.

Important Dietary Suggestions

  • Cut down on bad fats and simple form of carbohydrates.
  • Reduce consumption of saturated fats such as meat, cheese, hydrogenated oils and refined processed foods.

Foods to Include

  • Include healthy fats like PUFA(Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids), omega 3 rich fat sources eg:- fatty fish or fish oil supplements.
  • Olive oil, avocados, olives,
  • Sunflower seeds, flaxseeds, chia seeds
  • Increase dietary fibre intake by having lots of fruits and vegetables or fibre supplements.
  • Include oats, oat bran, barley and whole cereals for B complex vitamins and fibre.
  • Germinated legumes, pulses
  • Include Lean Protein:-eggs, fish, chicken, legumes, low-fat milk and products.
  • Cruciferous veggies like broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage naturally release goitrogens, which can interfere with the synthesis of thyroid hormone. But it gets denatured by heat, so consume these only after steaming them.
  • Soya is another such food, isoflavones in soya are believed to slow down the synthesis of thyroid hormones. So only moderate consumption is suggested.

Some other important points

  • If you are on Ca supplementation, then you need to keep a gap of four hours after you take our thyroid pill. Also, thyroid medicine should be taken early morning empty stomach.
  • Exercise, strength training and cardiovascular exercises are must, as they help increase your metabolism. It is 5 days a week for at least 1 hour at a time.

To conclude, in case of a thyroid disorder,  it's important to have a proper diet and lifestyle to keep your thyroid levels in control along with advised thyroid medication.  Furthermore, Steadfast Nutrition Fish oil supplement and Trifibre can help you with the condition. It is available online at

References :-

  • Jayakumar, R.V.(2011). Clinical Approach to Thyroid Disease.SUPPLEMENT TO JAPI.59.11-13
  • Harris, C.(2012).Thyroid Disease and Diet — Nutrition Plays a Part in Maintaining Thyroid Health. Today’s Dietitian. 14, 40
  • Khan, Alam., Khattak, Md. M. A. K. & Akhtar, S.(2002).Thyroid Disorders, Etiology and Prevalence. Journal of Medical Sciences. 2. 10.3923/jms.2002.89.94.

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