Every year 5th of June is celebrated as the world environment day. It was declared by the United Nation to encourage the action of protecting the environment against all types of pollutions. This effort was initiated in 1974 and with the growing popularity in the worldwide platform it is celebrated across 100 countries. We are also a part of the environment. In the 21st century, the lifestyle modification has lead to negative effects on our environment. Environmental pollution can broadly be divided into 7 components, such as:
Air Pollution: It occurs due to the release of pollutants into the air which is deadly for human health and other animals as a whole.
Water Pollution: It means the contamination of water by several chemical pollutants along with non-biodegradable synthetic pollutants.
Land Pollution: It is an adverse change in the soil due to excessive use of pesticides and other chemicals. Another form of this is desertification due to excessive deforestation.
Noise Pollution: Sound is anything that we hear. 60 Db is the tolerable audible sound. Anything beyond that is disturbing for the body and can even become a life-threatening hazard.
Radiation Pollution: Radiation pollution or nuclear pollution is caused by radioactive materials. It can also lead to alteration in gene expression.
Thermal Pollution: This type of pollution is a combination effect of any pollution caused by waste material from the thermal plants. It can be either air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, land pollution, radiation pollution or can be a combination of all.
Garbage Pollution: This is another type of pollution caused by the improper disposal of waste and can combine with any above-mentioned pollution such as water or land or air.
In 2019, the theme of world environment day is “Beat Air Pollution.” It is a call to combat the global crisis of deteriorating air quality. According to a survey conducted by WHO it is said that 9 out of 10 people worldwide are exposed to some or other type of air pollution. There are certain causative factors of air pollution like :
Household: In the majority of cases the household air pollution is caused by the indoor burning of coal, fossil fuel, wood or biomass-based flammable items. It is majorly used for cooking purpose. Thus, homemakers are the major victims of this kind of pollution.
Transport: The emission of carbon dioxide, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide from automobiles are the major culprits. Due to urbanisation, it is a rapidly growing type of pollution. In a survey, it is seen the major pollution in Delhi is because of the excessive use of vehicles.
Industry: Coal-burning power plants are the major sources of air pollution in many developing countries like India.
Agriculture: Air pollution from the agricultural field is mainly happening in two ways — one is due to the methane gas production by livestock and other is the burning of agricultural waste.
Waste: Open waste burning and non-biodegradable material like plastic burning emits gases like dioxins, furans, methane and black carbon into the atmosphere causing pollution.
The goal of sustainable development is to reduce pollution by 2030 and “to ensure the lasting protection of the planet and its natural resources.” Thus, we celebrate world environment day and spread the awareness of protection of our environment.
Clean Environment! Green Environment!